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Appealing an Eviction

Suit to Evict

The landlord must deliver to you a written "Notice to Vacate" with a move-out date. If you don’t move out by the date, the landlord must file an eviction case in Justice Court with a Justice of the Peace (a type of judge). A constable will serve you with the lawsuit, and the first page will state the date of the trial.

No-show/Default

If you don’t appear at the trial, the landlord wins by a default judgment. Six days after the judgment, they can ask the Justice Court for a "Writ of Possession" to remove you. The constable will then post a 24 hours’ notice to vacate on your front door. After that period, the sheriff and constable can remove you and your belongings.

Stay Pending Appeal

If you lose the hearing or there is a default, you can appeal within five days and remain in the property while the appeal is pending. You still must pay rent as set forth below if the eviction is for nonpayment of rent.

If part of your rent is paid with federal funds (public housing, subsidized housing, Section 8 rental voucher), make sure the Justice Court’s judgment states the amount paid by the government and the amount to be paid by you. If this isn’t correct, you must file a written objection in Justice Court within five days of the date of the judgment. This is important because you must deposit your part of the rent while your appeal is pending when the eviction is for nonpayment and you appeal by filing an Affidavit of Inability to Pay. You want it to be what you actually owe.

Basics of Appealing an Eviction from JC: Pay attention to deadlines!

Five days to appeal (filed in Justice Court)

You have only five days to appeal the Justice Court’s decision to the County Court (the next highest court). The five days include weekends and holidays. If the deadline falls on a day that the Justice Court is closed (or is not open until 5:00PM), you can file the appeal on the next day that the Justice Court is open. If you miss the deadline, the judgment stands and the landlord can get an Writ of Possession to have you and your belongings removed.

Appeal (filed in Justice Court)

You can appeal with a (1) bond or (2) cash deposit OR (3) an Statement of Inability to Pay Court Costs (Fee Waiver).

  • Appeal Bond or Cash Deposit: A bond is a promise to pay the judgment if you lose the appeal. The judge usually sets the amount at one month's rent, but this may vary. of the bond is set by the Justice Court, usually at two to three times your monthly rent. You can deposit cash or file a bond with the Justice Court. A bond must be signed (guaranteed) by you and one or more people (for example who have assets in Texas) who are approved by the Justice Court. If the eviction is for nonpayment of rent and you file an appeal bond rather than a cash deposit, you must then also pay one rental period’s rent into the Justice Court’s court registry within five days. And you will also have to pay a filing fee for the appeal once it arrives at the County Court.
  • Statement of Inability to Pay Court Costs (Fee Waiver)​: If you can’t afford the bond or a cash deposit, you can file an Affidavit of Inability to Pay (also called a Sworn Statement of Inability to Pay). The Justice Court should provide you a form Affidavit upon request. If you appeal with an Affidavit, you are not responsible for County Court filing fees. If the landlord disagrees with your Affidavit, you must prove in a Justice Court hearing that you cannot afford to pay the cash deposit or file the bond. If you disagree with the Justice Court decision, you can appeal to County Court.

Paying Rent into Court Registry

If the eviction is for nonpayment of rent and you appeal with an Affidavit of Inability to Pay, you must pay one rental period’s rent (per the judgment) to the Justice Court within five days of filing your Affidavit. After your first rent payment to the Justice Court Registry, you must pay rent every rental period (usually monthly) to the County Court Clerk until your appeal is decided. Pay within five days of the date it’s due under the lease. If you are late, your landlord can get a Writ of Possession to have you removed. 

If you file an appeal bond or a cash deposit in a nonpayment of rent eviction, you must still pay one rental period’s rent into the Justice Court’s court registry. However, you will not have to pay additional rent into the County Court.

Paying Rent

If the eviction is for some reason other than nonpayment of rent, you should continue to pay the rent to the landlord directly to prevent eviction for nonpayment. If the landlord refuses to accept your rent, you should put it aside and not touch it, because you will still owe it.

Written Answer

If you didn’t file a written answer to the lawsuit in the Justice Court, you must file one in the County Court within eight days after the County Court receives your case. The Clerk will send you notice by certified mail (check with the Court frequently!). If you don’t file a written answer, the landlord may win by default. Your answer can be a simple hand-written letter asking for a trial and giving the reasons why you shouldn’t be evicted. Or you can find Answer forms here.

Filing Fee (County Court)

If you did not appeal with an Affidavit of Inability to Pay, you must pay a filing fee to the County Court within 20 days after receiving notice of the fee. If you can’t afford the filing fee, you can file an Affidavit of Inability to Pay Costs.

Appeals Process Flowchart

The Travis County Law Library has created a flowchart to help tenants understand the eviction appeals process.

Trial on Appeal

Your appeal means you will have a new trial in the County Court. The same evidence you used in Justice Court (papers, witnesses, photographs) can be presented again. If you have new evidence, you can also present it. The judge will listen first to the landlord's side and then to your side, and then make a decision about whether to evict. You also have the right to ask questions of the landlord in court.

If You Lose the Appeal

You have 10 days to file a supersedeas bond set by the County Court if you wish to appeal to the court of appeals and remain in possession. The process is complicated; consult a lawyer immediately to discuss your next steps.

Forms

Below are links to useful forms from the Texas Justice Court Training Center. The forms you use depend on your situation. You can either file an appeal bond with two cosigners, file an appeal by cash deposit, or ask for a fee waiver. (If the court grants your fee waiver, you will have to pay rent to the court registry on time every month or risk eviction.)
 
Option 1 - Appeal Bond: Find two sureties to cosign your appeal bond. A surety is someone who agrees to ensure the judgment gets paid if you lose your case. Filing an appeal bond starts your appeal.
 
Option 2 - Appeal by Cash Deposit: If you cannot find two sureties to sign your bond, then you may file an appeal by cash deposit. This requires you to pay cash into the court registry. The amount is most often equal to a month's rent, though the court can set it higher or lower. Filing the appeal by cash deposit starts your appeal.
 
Option 3 - Statement of Inability to Pay Court Costs (Fee Waiver): If you cannot find two sureties and cannot pay cash, you may use this form to ask the court to waive bond and deposit. However, you must still pay rent on time or risk eviction.  See Texas Property Code Ch. 25.0053(b). Filing a fee waiver starts the appeal.
 
If you file for a fee waiver, you will need additional forms. First, you must give the other side notice that you filed. If they disagree with you over the filing, you will need to ask for a hearing on the fee waiver. You must also give the other side notice of this hearing. Finally, if the JP court grants your request to waive fees, then the judge will sign your order.
 
Fee Waiver Forms:
Paying rent while on appeal
If you file an appeal with Option 1 or Option 2, you are not bound to pay rent while your case is on appeal. Rent may still accrue, though. If you choose Option 3, you must pay rent every month into the court registry or you risk eviction before the County Court can even hear your case.
 
Filing an Answer
Remember to file an Answer with the County Court if you have not already filed one with the JP Court. If you have filed an Answer with the JP Court, you do not need to file another Answer with the County Court.

More Information

Find more help from the Texas Tenant Advisor: www.texastenant.org.